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如何知道您患有缺铁性贫血?

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July 28, 2021 Blog0

Hemorrhoids Symptoms, Hemorrhoids Treatment Cost Singapore

 

如何知道您患有缺铁性贫血?

 

缺乏铁质的形成是当体内的铁质不足以血红蛋白的组成,血红蛋白是参与氧气的运输和存储。这种现象的形成有两种:

  • 绝对性铁质缺乏是指当体内的铁质处于异常不足的程度;反之
  • 功能性铁质缺乏是指体内有足够的铁质,但却不能有效的被利用。

当身体没有足够的铁质组成血红蛋白,这会引起红血球细胞数量下降,促使运输给肌肉和组织的氧气也下降。缺乏血红蛋白的状况也称为贫血,而这种情形会导致不良的生活品质。

如何知道您患有缺铁性贫血?

一些贫血的症状与表现如以下显示。如果您亲身经历这些症状,您应该要以缺铁性贫血的可能性做身体检查。

  • 经常疲劳

由于不足够的氧气运输到身体的肌肉与组织,这就剥夺了它们需要的的能量。因此,心脏必须加倍工作量,以便能把氧气运输到身体各部位,也就导致疲劳的感觉。虽然,疲劳的症状无法明确断定是缺乏铁质的缘故;然而如果您确认有缺乏铁质的问题,您很可能会经常感觉呆滞及虚弱、容易暴躁、难以集中注意力甚至工作效率降低。

  • 面色苍白

血红蛋白是给予血液的红色素,也是提供嘴唇、内眼皮及玫瑰色脸颊的颜色。于是,血红蛋白过低,会让一个人看起来很苍白。缺乏铁质的人会失去健康、玫瑰红的颜色,或会展示苍白的嘴唇、内眼皮、牙龈或指甲。苍白现象一般会发生于中等至严重的贫血症患者上。

  • 呼吸急促

当身体没有摄取足够的氧气来转换成能量,普通的日常活动如步行或爬楼梯都会比平常感觉更吃力。由于身体尝试摄入更多氧气,这就引起呼吸频率上升及呼吸变得急促。虽然不常见,但是缺乏铁质的人可能会有心悸的现象发生,这是因为心脏必须加倍努力让含有氧气的血液流到身体各部位。

  • 舌炎、灰白

肌红蛋白是另一个可在血液里发现的蛋白质,有助于辅助肌肉的组织。除了低血红蛋白会导致舌头看似灰白、低肌红蛋白也会导致舌头感觉疼痛、发炎甚至怪异光滑。除此之外,口干、口内或舌头有裂缝,也可能是缺乏铁质的表现。

  • 反甲(汤匙状指甲)

缺乏铁质较罕见的症状是反甲 —— 薄弱或匙状指甲。您事先会注意到指甲比平常容易断裂。当反甲的症状越来越严重,指甲的中央就会凹陷而四周翘起,呈现匙状。反甲的情况比较罕见,只会发生于严重的贫血病例上。

缺乏铁质另有什么意义?

缺乏铁质就代表身体出现了问题 —— 这可以是因没有摄取足够的铁质食品、或因月经流失过多血液或因内伤所致。然而,它也是其他病状的迹象,如癌症和肠道疾病。

尤其是缺铁性贫血的病患,有更高的可能性患上癌症;同样的,患有癌症的病患也有更高的机率患上缺铁性贫血症。有研究显示,患有胰腺癌、结肠癌和肺癌的病患,经常于缺乏铁质有关系。此外,也有其他研究发现6%的缺铁性贫血病例与结肠癌(一般呈现结肠出血现象)有相连。

因此,除了对缺乏铁质的症状有警惕外,您也应该留意其他症状如持续腹泻或便秘、腹胀、便血、恶心、呕吐、及腹痛,并建议您进行癌症测试或其他肠胃道情况的检查。如果您有患上结肠癌的风险,您的全科医生可能会推荐您咨询结肠癌专科


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July 28, 2021 Blog

Pancreatic Cancer Symptoms

Colorectal cancer, or colon cancer, is one of the three most common cancers in Singapore, with an average of five Singaporeans getting diagnosed with this illness daily. With its alarming prevalence, it is unsurprising that a large proportion of the population may be at risk.

The likelihood of developing colon cancer stems from risk factors. While there are a few inherent risk factors, such as genetics, you can still adopt certain healthy lifestyle habits to reduce your chances. Here are some risk factors to note as you assess your lifestyle and protect yourself against colon cancer.

Reversible risk factors

1. Obesity

If you are overweight or obese, you may have excess visceral fat in your abdomen. This can pose a concern as visceral fat accumulates around important organs such as your stomach and colon. With more visceral fat, the metabolic and hormonal activities in your body may increase, increasing the risk of abnormal cell division or growth of obesity-related tumours.

Being overweight or obese also suggests low levels of activity. Staying at home during the pandemic may reduce your daily caloric output, it is best to include small pockets of exercise in your daily routine by walking around the house, stretching, or even home workouts. Exercising reduces your risk of colon cancer by maintaining a healthy percentage of body fat, regulating hormones, and encouraging healthy digestion in your body.

2. Diet

Your diet also affects your risk of developing colon cancer. A diet rich in red and processed meats has been classified as a carcinogen that increases one’s risk of uncontrolled cell division. Although the reason why red meat and processed meats increase the risk of colorectal cancer is unclear, harmful chemicals are said to be released when food is cooked at high temperatures and over a prolonged time.

Instead, a diet rich in whole grains, fruits, and vegetables will be able to reduce your risk of colon cancer. Increasing your intake of such foods while cutting down your consumption of deep-fried and sugary foods will help lower your risk of colon cancer.

Additionally, studies have shown that vitamin D deficiency can impact the risk of colon cancer. Without sufficient vitamin D, the risk of colon cancer increases up to 31%. You can increase your body’s vitamin D intake by consuming fatty fish such as salmon and spending more time outdoors in the sun.

3. Smoking and alcohol

While smoking has been largely related to lung cancer, it increases one’s general risk of developing cancer in general. Smoking tobacco releases carcinogens into one’s bloodstream, increasing the overall risk of developing other common cancers, including colon cancer and pancreatic cancer. For example, people who smoke also have higher chances of developing pancreatic cancer symptoms.

Other than smoking, alcohol can also increase one’s chances of developing colon cancer. Moderate to heavy alcohol consumption can elevate one’s risk of developing colon cancer by an average of 50%.

Irreversible risk factors

1. Age

Needless to say, your body and immune system become weaker with age. Naturally, your risk of colorectal cancer also increases. Both men and women are at higher risk of developing colon cancer once they reach 50 years of age. At least 90% of colorectal cancer patients are of 50 years and above. However, it is also important to note that you are not completely risk-free if you are below this age.

2. Family history

If you have a close family member with colon cancer, your risk of contracting colon cancer is higher. 1 in 3 patients with colon cancer has at least one family member with colon cancer. The risk is even higher if your immediate family (parent, sibling or child) has a history of colon cancer. Take note if the diagnosis was when they were below 50 years of age or as this could increase the risk of you contracting cancer.

Family history is important as it reflects patterns in environmental factors, inherited gene sequences, or even a combination of these factors.

3. Personal history

If you have been diagnosed with adenomatous polyps or Crohn’s disease, you might be at a higher risk of developing colon cancer. Adenomatous polyps are usually harmless but may develop into malignant tumours.

Conclusion

While colon cancer treatment costs in Singapore are high, the cost to our physical health might be irreversible. By understanding the various risk factors, we can take the necessary steps to prevent the onset of colon cancer.

If you are at risk of developing colon cancer, consult a medical professional as soon as possible to prevent any further complications. The earlier the treatment is administered, the better the chances of recovery. Hence, it’s recommended to attend regular checkups to protect your health and overall well-being.


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July 17, 2021 Blog0

您是否经历过排便时感觉疼痛、肛门周围发痒、肛门有肿块或便血的情况?这些都是常见的痔疮症状,而会带给人们排便时的不适感。痔疮是肛门四周的血管异常肿胀之疾病。一般轻微的痔疮问题能够无需医疗干预下就能自然康复。然而,如果症状持续了超过一至二个星期,建议您寻求肠胃科医生的诊断以便能排除任何严重的疾病,也能提供您适当的治疗方案。

不管您是在等待进一步的治疗程序或是在等待结果出炉,继续面对痔疮的存在可是个痛苦的经历。避免面对痔疮疾病也是个有效的痔疮治疗方案。这包括了补充足够的水分以及不抵挡排便的欲望。除了这些,即使您已经因痔疮在受苦,您也可以尝试以下的自家配方来缓解痔疮问题:

  • 舒缓纸巾

普通的厕纸较为粗糙会更刺激已经不适的肛门。因此,不妨尝试在排便后使用舒缓的湿纸巾清理。纸巾上的湿度对于皮肤较为温柔,而且也能充当润滑剂。购买含有金缕梅或芦荟成分的湿纸巾,因为它们都含有舒缓及消炎的功效。然而,避免使用含有酒精或芳香剂的湿纸巾,因为这些纸巾只会恶化痔疮的情况。

  • 温水浴

温水浴是快捷方便的方法缓和皮肤敏感症状。哈佛健康推荐排便后享受20分钟的温水浴能达到更有效地结果。一种比较方便的方法就是使用坐浴盆,一个连接在马桶上的塑料盆,只需将盆渗入温水,并把臀部置于坐浴盆之中即可。洗浴后,轻轻拍干或使用吹风机确保彻底擦干就好。这是为了避免因周围潮湿引起细菌或真菌滋生。

  • 冷敷法

使用冰袋的冷敷法有助于缓解疼痛即消肿的功效。在受影响的区域间隔冷敷大约15分钟。为了避免发生冻伤,确保在接触皮肤之前使用干毛巾包裹冷冻物品。

  • 软便剂

为了减轻排便时的疼痛,软便剂能够使排便更快更顺畅。软便剂也称缓和泻药,以各种形式呈现如粉状、胶囊型或液状都是在普通药房能获取的成药。

  • 提高纤维摄入量

膳食纤维与水分是促进排便的关键,既能在排便时减少过度使劲力气。简单的饮食习惯改变或服用相关补品能够提高纤维的摄入量并缓解便秘问题。一些您能够加入您的饮食习惯中的高纤维食品包括全麦食品、蔬果、豌豆、豆子及坚果。您必须适量引进这些食品,因为突然过度摄入这些纤维会导致产气过量及胀气。

症状持续该怎样?

痔疮是常见且轻度的痛楚,但在特别情况下当您的症状没有改善,这预示着更严重的征兆。您的医生会劝告您进行更详细的检查如肛门指检,甚至推荐进行结肠镜检查以便能获取更详细的诊断。根据情况所需,肠胃科医生会劝您进行适合的医疗程序,这可包括树胶圈结扎或痔上黏膜环形切割钉合术。我们建议您预约一位肠胃科专科以便能根据您的情况所需定制最适合的治疗方案。


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July 14, 2021 Blog0

 

导致消化不良的一般食物

 

大部分的人都会在用餐后遭受到腹胀、胃灼热和消化不良的症状。若这些症状发生很频率,这代表您的饮食习惯中有很多影响您肠道的食物。消化不良是指您的上腹部感到不适的一个总称。一般的消化不良症状包括早饱或饭后饱胀、上腹痛和恶心。

尽管您应该索取医生或肠胃科医生诊断任何有关您的肠道问题,然而有时一些持续性的肠胃问题是与您摄入的食物以及胃里的酸碱均衡度有关。通过辨认哪些食物引起您消化不良及减少这些食物的摄入量是主要能够帮助您减轻您所体验的肠胃不适症状。

飽和脂肪 (Saturated Fats)

油炸食物如鱼肉、鸡肉和马铃薯都是一些会大量产气和导致胃灼热的食物。过量的饱和脂肪会导致肠胃发炎,而且有些研究显示这些脂肪也会影响肠道菌群,进一步导致一系列的肠道问题。其他潜在的来源包括浓稠的奶油、调味肉汁和红肉。瘦肉特别是白肉是比较推荐的食材,您可以使用清蒸、水煮、烧烤或烘焙的煮法来减少消化不良的可能性。

高碳水化合物 (Heavy Carbohydrates)

摄入含有高碳水化合物的饮食习惯也会导致一些肠胃问题如腹胀、胃灼热和气过量。高碳水化合物的食物包括淀粉类食材如意面、面类、马铃薯和白面包。这些食材含有多糖体,是一种较难消化的糖分。除了减少摄入高碳水化合物的食物,您也可以选择摄入较健康的复合碳水化合物和含有高纤维的全麦食材。您可以尝试吃全麦面包、糙米和蒸粗麥粉(古斯米)。

乳制品

如果您的食物含有大量的奶酪、牛奶、浓稠的沙拉酱及冰激凌,而会导致您胃灼热的症状,建议您该减少这类型的食物了。这也因为乳制品里的乳糖导致您可能患有乳糖不耐的症状。与冰激凌比较,不妨选择酸奶,因为酸奶里含有益生菌。您也可以选择其他替换乳制品的营养例如杏仁露、豆奶和米奶。

 

您可能会面对难以完全停止或避免摄入这些食物,特别是在外用餐的时候,然而减少摄入量能足以改善您的肠胃问题。虽然轻微的消化不良并不烦人,但是如果您经常有肠胃不适,甚至持续了多于两个星期,您应该寻求医生的诊断,因为这些不适很可能会是一些较严重的潜在病状。


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July 13, 2021 Blog

Endoscopy Symptoms

From time to time, it’s natural to cough or choke when your food lands in the wrong pipe by accident. But, while it is normal to experience blockage in your throat now and then, constant difficulty in swallowing is a tell-tale sign that your digestive system is not working as well as it should. Read on to understand more about the various causes of this condition and when you should see a specialist.

Should I be worried if I experience difficulty in swallowing?

If you have been experiencing persistent difficulty swallowing, you could be suffering from a swallowing disorder known as dysphagia. Dysphagia can be caused by the weakening of muscles involved in the process of swallowing, typically the muscles in your throat or oesophagus.

From the moment your mouth receives food to getting this food into your stomach, you may be surprised to learn that over fifty pairs of muscles and nerves have to work together for you to swallow your food! This process is complicated and requires the coordination of multiple muscles, especially for the food to pass through your throat and oesophagus.

What are the signs of dysphagia?

The common signs of dysphagia are choking and coughing. Patients with dysphagia often report discomfort and feelings of food being trapped in their throat or chest level. Weight loss is also a sign of dysphagia as patients cannot digest enough food for the body.

Dysphagia is common among older adults whose nerves and muscles have weakened with age. Patients with nervous system disorders are also at risk of contracting dysphagia.

What causes dysphagia?

Dysphagia typically has two main causes. The first cause is that the muscles and nerves in your throat and oesophagus may not be functioning properly. There is lack of coordination of the muscles in moving the food from your throat, through the esophagus and into the stomach.

Sometimes it may be caused by oesophagal spasms. This means that your oesophagus muscles may suddenly tighten during swallowing, preventing food from reaching the stomach and resulting in food being ‘stuck’ mid-swallow.  Oesophagal spasms are minor and do not pose much concern, but if it frequently occurs, it may be a sign that you are suffering from underlying nervous system issues. Your nervous system transmits signals from your brain to the rest of your body, to successfully coordinate various muscles and actions. Therefore, if your oesophageal muscles are not functioning well, it may be a sign to examine your body’s nervous system.

The second common cause of dysphagia is the obstruction or narrowing of the oesophagus. If there has been an abnormal growth in the oesophagus, it obstructs the passageway for your food to travel to the stomach. In this case, difficulty in swallowing is progressive – it becomes more challenging to swallow solid food and then liquids as the tumour grows larger.

Furthermore, even when the tumour has been removed and the patient has recovered from cancer, swallowing can still be difficult. This is because radiotherapy and chemotherapy can lead to a dry mouth with ulcers, posing issues to swallowing. Besides that, radiotherapy or surgery to the neck and head regions can also weaken the muscles needed for swallowing.

What will the doctor do to diagnose my dysphagia?

It’s best to consult a specialist when your difficulty in swallowing is persistent. Seeking a gastroenterologist would be best as they are specialists in analysing and treating problems related to the digestive system; able to recommend the most appropriate cause of action for your diagnosis. The doctor may perform a series of tests such as an X-ray of your chest, a manometry (placing a tube down your oesophagus to measure the pressure in the esophagus as you swallow).

Swallowing difficulty caused by oesophageal obstruction or narrowing is usually identified with an upper endoscopy. An endoscopy helps the doctor investigate the cause of stomach pain symptoms or other signs causing a patient to have digestive issues. In the case of suspected dysphagia, the endoscopy can examine your symptoms of persistent choking and coughing. A long, thin and flexible tube is inserted directly into the body during an endoscopy, with a tiny camera and light source attached to its end. It allows your doctor to observe the surrounding tissues in your oesophagus, stomach and upper intestines.

If you have been scheduled for an endoscopy, it’s recommended to fast six hours before your scheduled appointment. An empty stomach is needed to perform an endoscopy safely, and you should also schedule safe transport back home as the sedative effects can last hours after the procedure.

Conclusion

Difficulty in swallowing may pose issues to your daily life as you might feel frustrated or even embarrassed when eating in a social setting. More importantly, it is crucial to consult a doctor immediately to identify the reasons behind your dysphagia and prevent any further complications. With adequate help and treatment, you can manage dysphagia safely and successfully.


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July 5, 2021 Blog0

Fatty Liver Symptoms

脂肪肝:何时应该为此担忧

 

脂肪肝是指由于各种原因引起的肝细胞内脂肪堆积过多的病变。如果肝内脂肪蓄积太多,超过肝重量的5%或在组织学上肝细胞50%以上有脂肪变性时,就可称为脂肪肝。目前认为脂肪肝的形成与过度酒精摄入量及肥胖症有关系。

通常在初期的脂肪肝,处于轻微状态都不会呈现任何症状。因此,很多人都带着脂肪肝过活也没有进行任何的检验。然而,脂肪肝并不是一个能视而不见的疾病。如果放任不管,脂肪肝会引起更严重既无法逆转的健康问题。

脂肪肝疾病的可能并发症,如下:

  • 肝炎与肝硬化:肝堆积的脂肪会直接发展成三个阶段 —— 肝炎、纤维化及硬化。
    • 肝炎是因器官有多余的脂肪而导致肝脏发炎。
    • 纤维化是当肝脏反复或连续损伤或发炎时,肝脏修复愈合时发生。肝脏在任何慢性损伤将导致肝组织的纤维性瘢痕。
    • 肝硬化是纤维化的过程长期持续发展而成的,也引起肝功能障碍。
  • 肝衰竭:当肝脏严重损伤导致肝脏无法正常执行其功能就是肝衰竭。一些症状预示着肝衰竭的有黄疸、恶心、腹泻、疲劳及痔疮等等。另外,肝衰竭导致其他更严重的并发症包括内出血及肾功能衰竭。
  • 腹水:腹水是指腹腔内有液体积聚,由在肝硬化阶段的纤维化过程中所致。由于肝硬化使肝内血管压力增加,把水分推入腹腔内,而引起腹水。腹水会导致呼吸困难、行动不便及更高风险受感染和疝。
  • 食道静脉曲张:食道静脉曲张是由肝硬化引起食管静脉扩张。肝硬化引起的肝脏萎缩、硬化,流入肝脏的血流会减少。 于是,向肝脏输送血液和营养的门静脉(静脉)的压力就会上升。如果食管静脉曲张破裂出血,这种情况就急需紧急医疗治疗。因此,患有严重肝疾病的病患应该定期进行食管静脉的检查。通常食管静脉曲张是使用内窥镜方式检查。
  • 患上代谢性疾病风险提高:肝脂肪会导致葡萄糖与三酸甘油酯过量生产,既是代谢综合症的两个主要成分。代谢综合症会增加心血管疾病和第二型糖尿病的风险。
  • 患上肠癌风险提高:患上脂肪肝的病患有较高的可能性患上肠癌,甚至肝癌、胰脏癌及结肠癌。有研究显示患有脂肪肝的病患者与没有此疾病的病患者相比,拥有多达90%的机率患上肠癌。

好消息是,脂肪肝能够在未恶化成更严重的健康问题前,通过改变一些生活习惯促使它改善。如果您处于高风险患上脂肪肝的群组,或已经被诊断患有脂肪肝,您可以通过减低酒精摄入量、摄取健康又均衡的饮食习惯、减轻体重(若您有肥胖症),以降低肝脏的损坏程度。

如果你对脂肪肝有所疑问,或想寻求脂肪肝检查,可以联络我们旗下的肝科专科医生


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June 30, 2021 Blog

Abdominal Pain Symptoms

While going for a series of routine blood tests can be overwhelming, it is still important to understand the test results and what they could mean for your health. Out of which, one such common blood test to undergo is the liver function test (LFT).

The purpose of a Liver Function Test is to examine the various liver enzymes levels in your body. Liver enzymes are produced by liver cells. When infected or inflamed, these injured liver enzymes will leak into the bloodstream – resulting in a condition otherwise known as elevated liver enzymes.

While liver enzyme levels may be temporarily elevated and do not pose much of a concern, it’s crucial to know that they may signal some underlying issues as well. Let’s take a look at the elevation of two enzymes, ALT and AST, and what you can do to regulate these enzyme levels.

What is the AST and ALT?

When there are high levels of ALT and AST, it signals that the liver is infected and inflamed, hence releasing both enzymes into the bloodstream at a rate higher than usual

Possible causes include hepatitis B and C, side effects from medication, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and alcohol.

As one of the most common chronic liver disorders in Singapore, NAFLD is a possible cause of an abnormal ALT and AST. Most patients with NAFLD do not have symptoms. In some patients, they may experience upper abdominal discomfort or tiredness. Look out for signs of severe liver condition such as jaundice and gastrointestinal bleeding if it has progressed to liver hardening.

If persistent increments in your AST and ALT levels are observed without any visible health issues, it’s best to consult a professional gastroenterologist for further evaluation. This can come in the form of screening for liver disease or an ultrasound of the liver, if necessary.

What is considered to be an abnormal AST/ALT ratio?

The AST/ALT ratio tells you the relative concentrations of the enzymes aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) in your blood.

A typical AST/ALT ratio would be less than 1. Sometimes, minor increments in AST/ALT ratio levels can be observed after vigorous exercise or suggest signs of skeletal muscle injury. But, an average of 70% of patients with alcoholic liver disease have an AST/ALT ratio of more than 2.

How do I regulate my AST and ALT levels?

But not to worry, lowering your AST and ALT levels can be achieved by changing lifestyle habits. For instance, cultivating a habit of regular exercise would improve insulin sensitivity and reduce liver inflammation.

Another way to keep your AST and ALT levels in check is to review your diet. Consider reducing your sugar intake and animal fat consumption. These foods can over-work your liver cells. Instead, consume foods rich in folate and the water-soluble B vitamin. Folate is key in helping your liver function at its best, so include foods such as avocado and spinach as part of your diet.

Conclusion

When it comes to protecting your liver, it’s crucial to keep your AST and ALT levels in check to be aware of potential infections or diseases you might have contracted. If your AST and ALT levels have been persistently high, consult a professional as soon as possible to steer clear of any dangerous developments.


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June 25, 2021 Blog0

 

腹痛、腹胀、便秘及肠胃胀气都是患有肠易激综合征的常见症状。虽然症状因人而异,却足以影响一个人的生活。

饮食习惯能够恶化也能够改善胃肠道相关的疾病。对于患有肠易激综合征的病患者,通过严格限制饮食能帮助改善肠胃胀气及腹胀的问题。低FODMAP饮食是其中较为有效于改善肠易激综合征的症状。

FODMAPs是食物中可以发现的碳水化合物(含有可发酵的,二糖,单糖,和多元醇)。这些糖类最容易引起肠胃胀气及腹胀的问题。

有些研究结果显示低FODMAP饮食有效于改善75%的肠胃胀气问题以及81%的腹痛问题。但是,再深入理解如何实施这个食谱之前,您应该进一步理解这食谱是否适合您。

 

FODMAP食谱是否适合您?

这个低FODMAP食谱适合用于患有慢性胃肠病症状的肠易激综合征病患者,但不适于全部人因为FODMAP食谱还是拥有重要的营养特别是益生元。在某些情况下,低FODMAP食谱可能会带来更大的危害。

如果您被诊断患有肠易激综合征或已得了医生诊疗方案但还是经历未改善的消化系统症状,那您就可以考虑进行低FODMAP饮食。

 

该如何开始进行低FODMAP饮食?

专家建议进行低FODMAP饮食需3个阶段:严格限制饮食、重新引入FODMAP、FODMAP个性化饮食。但还未开始前,您应该先了解FODMAP食物包含什么,这就能帮助您策划如何购买正确的食材。

以下是最普遍的FODMAP食物分类:

  • 低聚糖(如低聚果糖、低聚半乳糖):主要存在于小麦、黑麦、豆类、小扁豆、洋葱、大蒜。
  • 二糖(如乳糖):主要存在于乳制品(如:牛奶、奶酪、酸奶)
  • (如果糖):主要存在于水果(如:苹果、水蜜桃和芒果)和甜味剂(如:蜂蜜,龙舌兰糖浆)
  • 多元醇:主要存在于水果(如:黑莓、樱桃,荔枝)和低热量甜味剂(无糖口香糖里的木糖醇)

 

第一阶段:严格限制饮食阶段

顾名思义,就是从您的饮食中剔除所有高FODMAP食物。这是为了试探剔除FODMAP食物后,是否改善了消化系统症状。为了能够更有效见到结果,您必须严格剔除所有高FODMAP食物。通常这阶段持续3-8周,但也因人而异,主要得观察症状的改善程度。

 

第二阶段:重新引入FODMAP

这个阶段,您将要逐步把在第一阶段剔除的一些高FODMAP食物,重新引入到您的饮食中。这是为了协助您确认哪些您能承受与不能承受的食物或食物组,以及承受量有多少。

在这个挑战中,您需要有规划的每天吃一样富含一种FODMAP的食物(譬如牛奶,只富含乳糖而不包括其他FODMAP),持续三天,在这期间监测您的症状。您可以索取专业营养师的指导或使用一些可靠的饮食记录程式来记载并监测自身的症状。

在这阶段您必须留意您所吃的FODMAP食物及其引起的症状。这些资料对下个阶段是有所帮助的。

 

第三阶段:FODMAP个性化饮食

在这个阶段就是要找出适合自身的低FODMAP食谱。根据第二阶段所采集的资料,您就能够明确的剔除引起症状的食物并重新引进那些您能够承受的FODMAP食物。

第三阶段是个长期性阶段,因此打造一个适合又均衡的食谱是非常重要的。只有严格进行“饮食管理”后,才能够确保有效的改善您的肠道症状。

 

若这个食谱不见效呢?

虽然低FODMAP食谱对于很多患有肠易激综合征病患者都有所帮助,但它治本不治根,还是有少许患者进行了严格饮食管理后都并没达到任何效果。

若这低FODMAP食谱对您没有任何功效,医生也许会建议您其他治疗方案。其他的肠易激综合征治疗方案包括了压力管理、给予膳食纤维素或是缓解症状的药物。为了更有效地解决问题,您该寻求专业的肠胃科专家,为您打造专属的治疗方案。


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June 24, 2021 Blog

Abdominal Pain Symptoms

Stomach pains come and go, and it is normal to experience stomach discomfort every once in a while. While it can typically be a minor digestive issue, perhaps after a heavy meal or too much spice in your favourite bowl of noodles, there are times when the discomfort becomes persistent and increasingly unbearable.

But, before you get too concerned and start worrying about the worst-case scenarios such as stomach cancer, it’s time to find out the other possible issues aside from this illness.

Where exactly is my stomach?

It is common for most people to associate any form of abdominal pain with stomach issues. However, there are actually many organs located in your abdominal area.

Your stomach is a sac-like organ in your abdomen that digests food with the help of gastric juices and acids. The stomach is located in the upper-left abdominal area. Any pain experienced around and within this region would be considered stomach pain.

Aside from your stomach, the abdomen contains many other organs responsible for digestion – namely the spleen, gallbladder, small and large intestines, and pancreas. Connecting tissues, otherwise known as the mesentery, allow these organs to expand during the digestion process.

What is stomach cancer and how do I spot it?

Cancer is the abnormal growth and functioning of cells in one’s body. Specifically for stomach cancer, a growth or tumour usually begins in the mucosa, the moist inner lining of the stomach. Instead of dividing in the usual orderly manner, the cells here become affected and develop into cancer cells. As the condition worsens, cancer can spread to cells in the external parts of the organ and possibly enter the bloodstream, impacting the rest of the body.

Contrary to popular belief, stomach cancer is not only defined by chronic stomach pain symptoms. Apart from general abdominal pain, one will experience a combination of symptoms – including poor appetite, nausea, vomiting, heartburn, or weight loss for no particular reason. While these symptoms are also characteristic of many other stomach or abdominal issues, it is best to get diagnosed and rule out the possibility of stomach cancer.

If it is not cancer, what is behind my abdominal pain?

There are many other causes of stomach and abdominal pain. If you usually experience abdominal discomfort after a meal, it could be caused by acid reflux. Acid reflux occurs when the lower oesophagus sphincter (the muscle between the oesophagus and stomach) has weakened and functions abnormally. As such, acids and digestive juices from the stomach can leak back into the oesophagus during digestion, leading to heartburn and general discomfort. Fret not, acid reflux can be treated by reducing the consumption of certain foods (e.g. spicy or fatty food) and a prescription of medication from your doctor or pharmacist.

Abdominal pain can also be a sign of Crohn’s disease, a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). With a chronic inflammation of your digestive tract, you may also experience persistent diarrhoea, bloating, and find blood in your stools. If you are suspected of having Crohn’s Disease, seek medical attention as soon as possible to prevent the disease from developing. A typical Crohn’s disease treatment includes medication and nutrition therapy to reduce inflammation.

There are many other causes of abdominal pain such as gastric pain from sensitive stomach as well as diseases affecting the pancreas, for instance pancreas inflammation or abnormal growth.

How can I prevent stomach issues in general?

Stomach and abdominal issues are often related to one’s diet. Processed, sugary, oily foods are difficult to digest and pose issues to one’s digestive system. Instead, consider a more plant-based diet and eat more foods high in fibre, such as whole grains and vegetables.

Additionally, attending regular check-ups will help you steer clear or treat illnesses early. If you are not diagnosed with any medical conditions, your doctor will suggest lifestyle changes and provide nutritional advice to help you ease your discomfort.

Conclusion

Stomach issues are not always a sign of cancer or a severe illness. With adequate exercise and a healthy, nutritious diet, you can help your digestive system function the best it can. If you suspect the possibility of medical conditions or illnesses, do consult a medical professional who can accurately diagnose and prescribe the right course of treatment.


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June 16, 2021 Blog0

Fatty Liver Symptoms

 

 

脂肪肝是指由于各种原因引起的肝细胞内脂肪堆积过多的病变。如果肝内脂肪蓄积太多,超过肝重量的5%或在组织学上肝细胞50%以上有脂肪变性时,就可称为脂肪肝。目前认为脂肪肝的形成与过度酒精摄入量及肥胖症有关系。

通常在初期的脂肪肝,处于轻微状态都不会呈现任何症状。因此,很多人都带着脂肪肝过活也没有进行任何的检验。然而,脂肪肝并不是一个能视而不见的疾病。如果放任不管,脂肪肝会引起更严重既无法逆转的健康问题。

脂肪肝疾病的可能并发症,如下:

  • 肝炎与肝硬化:肝堆积的脂肪会直接发展成三个阶段 —— 肝炎、纤维化及硬化。
    • 肝炎是因器官有多余的脂肪而导致肝脏发炎。
    • 纤维化是当肝脏反复或连续损伤或发炎时,肝脏修复愈合时发生。肝脏在任何慢性损伤将导致肝组织的纤维性瘢痕。
    • 肝硬化是纤维化的过程长期持续发展而成的,也引起肝功能障碍。
  • 肝衰竭:当肝脏严重损伤导致肝脏无法正常执行其功能就是肝衰竭。一些症状预示着肝衰竭的有黄疸、恶心、腹泻、疲劳及痔疮等等。另外,肝衰竭导致其他更严重的并发症包括内出血及肾功能衰竭。
  • 腹水:腹水是指腹腔内有液体积聚,由在肝硬化阶段的纤维化过程中所致。由于肝硬化使肝内血管压力增加,把水分推入腹腔内,而引起腹水。腹水会导致呼吸困难、行动不便及更高风险受感染和疝。
  • 食道静脉曲张:食道静脉曲张是由肝硬化引起食管静脉扩张。肝硬化引起的肝脏萎缩、硬化,流入肝脏的血流会减少。 于是,向肝脏输送血液和营养的门静脉(静脉)的压力就会上升。如果食管静脉曲张破裂出血,这种情况就急需紧急医疗治疗。因此,患有严重肝疾病的病患应该定期进行食管静脉的检查。通常食管静脉曲张是使用内窥镜方式检查。
  • 患上代谢性疾病风险提高:肝脂肪会导致葡萄糖与三酸甘油酯过量生产,既是代谢综合症的两个主要成分。代谢综合症会增加心血管疾病和第二型糖尿病的风险。
  • 患上肠癌风险提高:患上脂肪肝的病患有较高的可能性患上肠癌,甚至肝癌、胰脏癌及结肠癌。有研究显示患有脂肪肝的病患者与没有此疾病的病患者相比,拥有多达90%的机率患上肠癌。

好消息是,脂肪肝能够在未恶化成更严重的健康问题前,通过改变一些生活习惯促使它改善。如果您处于高风险患上脂肪肝的群组,或已经被诊断患有脂肪肝,您可以通过减低酒精摄入量、摄取健康又均衡的饮食习惯、减轻体重(若您有肥胖症),以降低肝脏的损坏程度。

如果你想要知道更多有关脂肪肝检查, 欢迎寻求我们胃肠专科医生的意见。


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